0.05) greater number of stems than the others, except compared to Nebraska 28 in 1996. Agron. Established seed production fields can produce 500 to 1,000 pounds of seed per acre with irrigation, and the seed is easily threshed, cleaned, and planted with commercial planting equipment. Read, and C. Tischler. Since switchgrass is deep rooted, soil samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a depth of 5 feet. 2008. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. Lee, D.K., V.N. Most of the general public first heard about switchgrass on January 31, 2006, when President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address said, “We must also change how we power our automobiles. An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. In a five-year field study conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, Liebig et al. (2008) reported that switchgrass stored large quantities of C, with four farms in Nebraska storing an average of 2,590 pounds of soil organic C (SOC) acre-1 year-1 when measured to a depth of 4 feet. Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass for grazing and hay. Average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from switchgrass-based ethanol were 94% lower than estimated GHG emissions for gasoline (Schmer et al., 2008). Most of the general … 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Lemus, R., E.C. of Nebraska-Lincoln. Each big round bale (Photo 4) represents 50 gallons of ethanol assuming 80 gallons per ton of switchgrass, with a farm gate cost of $0.75/gallon at $60/ton. switch grass. A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. 1990. Biomass yield and biofuel quality of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. In the Great Plains and Midwest, maximum first-cut yields are attained by harvesting switchgrass when panicles are fully emerged to the post-anthesis stage (~1 August). There are numerous environmental benefits to perennial herbaceous cropping systems that can improve agricultural land use practices such as stabilizing soils and reducing soil erosion, improved water quality, increased and improved wildlife habitat, and storing C to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. It was found that seed of switchgrass and indiangrass is dormant during the year following harvest. Applying 8 oz of quinclorac plus 1 qt of atrazine per acre immediately after planting has provided effective grassy and broadleaf weed control for establishment. Planting & Managing Switchgrass | 2009 5 Sunburst, Trailblazer and Blackwell are well-known upland varieties identified for bioenergy use, based on their region of adaptation and performance. Octoploid? A good variety for grazing. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Biofuels Cropping Systems Research and Extension, Washington State University, http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/live/g1908/build/g1908.pdf, CenUSA Resources – Sustainable Production and Distribution of Bioenergy for the Central USA, Economic Potential of Switchgrass as a Biofuel Crop in Florida, USDA-ARS Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Lab, Energy Answers for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher, NEWBio Team Defines Human Systems Driving the Bioeconomy Transition, NEWBio Harvest, Preprocessing, and Logistics Team Optimizes Biomass Supply Chain Processes, NEWBio Feedstock Improvement Team Breeds Better Switchgrass and Willow for the Bioeconomy. Crop Sci. and sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) The soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs. Additionally, biomass will decline over years if inadequate N is applied, and yield will be sustainable only with proper N application (Muir et al., 2001). Switchgrass has distinct lowland and upland ecotypes. Switchgrass root density in the surface 6 inches is two-fold greater than alfalfa, more than three-fold greater than corn, and more than an order of magnitude greater than soybean (Johnson et al., 2007). Lowland and upland tetraploids have been crossed to produce true F1 hybrids that have a 30 to 50% yield increase over the parental lines (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). 30 Switchgrass Ln , Bennet, NE 68317-2423 is currently not for sale. Some type of covered storage will be necessary to protect the producer’s investment. 2001. Wrapping big round bales with at least three wraps of net-wrap maintains the structure of the bale and reduces the surface area of the bale that contacts the ground. (Released 1949, source of ecotype: Holt County, NE) Blackwell. 2006. “Nebraska 28” Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for … Mono. ND-Switchgrass Biomass Yields in the Northern Great Plains (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop (PAVI2) NE-Developing Switchgrass Into a Biomass Fuel Crop (PAVI2) NE-Switchgrass for Grazing and Hay (PAVI2) OH-Ohio State University Seed Biology (PAVI2) OK-Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery (PAVI2) OK-Oklahoma Forages (PAVI2) Consequently, the forage-type cultivars in the Great Plains and Midwest are entirely represented by upland ecotypes which are inherently lower yielding than lowland ecotypes. Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by the sickle-bar head. Prices listed are based on pure live seed weight, … Nebraska 28 Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the Upper Midwest. 2002. Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1. Environ. West Virginia 40° 179 Summer upland Tetraploid South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland ? Univ. Harvesting switchgrass after frost is a time when most farmers have completed corn and soybean harvests and handling switchgrass as a hay crop is not foreign to most producers. Mature stand of switchgrass in its third year of production at Michigan State University. Operating every day of the year, the plant will require 1,712 dry matter (DM) tons of feedstock per day, or 342 acres of switchgrass yielding 5 DM tons per acre. Vogel, and G. Sarath. 2006. Switchgrass can tolerate moderately acidic soils, but optimum seed germination occurs when soil pH is between 6 and 8 (Hanson and Johnson, 2005). The availability of adequate acres of agricultural land and the profit potential provided to farmers for growing switchgrass in a region will determine the success of growing switchgrass for biomass energy. Vogel, K.P. In 1936, L. C. Newell, an agronomist with the Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, in Lincoln, Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. Wood, and D.I. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Thus, yield data comparing forage-type upland cultivars like Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, Summer, and Trailblazer do not capture the full yield potential of switchgrass and are not fair comparisons. McLaughlin, S.B., D.G. Beef gains per hectare ranged from 147 to 112 kg, and were highest and similar on Nebraska 28 and Summer switchgrass and big bluestem, and lowest on indiangrass and sideoats grama. It should be noted that fuel and land prices have increased since this study, so the cost increases for those inputs need to be considered when determining switchgrass production costs. Sustainable biomass energy crops must be productive, protective of soil and water resources, and profitable for the producer. Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. McLaughlin, S.B., and L.A. Kszos. 1#/ac provides 9 seeds/ft2. Owens, and J.J. Doolittle. 155 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<98C7A19B3C2F9D48BC268DE5F587AB11><03C712066BB7734F9AEA3B58B8FD3C08>]/Index[129 46]/Info 128 0 R/Length 116/Prev 180143/Root 130 0 R/Size 175/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream If a loaded semi can deliver 30 round bales each containing 0.6 DM tons (18 U.S. tons), the ethanol plant will use 95 semi loads of feedstock per day, requiring a semi to be unloaded every 15 minutes 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Currently available plant materials and production practices can reliably produce five tons per acre in the central Great Plains and Midwest and 10 tons per acre in much of the Southeast. 2008. There must be an available land base in the local agricultural landscape to produce feedstock. Switchgrass as a biofuels feedstock in the USA. Vogel, K.P., and R.B. Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Energy produced from renewable carbon sources is held to a different standard than energy produced from fossil fuels, in that renewable fuels must have highly positive energy values and low greenhouse gas emissions. Dacotah, Forestbury, Nebraska 28, Summer, Sunburst, and ND 3743 switchgrasses maintained stand density in 1995 and showed little or no decline in stand density in 1996. Anderson. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. 129 0 obj <> endobj Image: Figure 2. 2008. Sanderson, W.R. Ocumpaugh, R.M. 2001. Recently, significant attention has been given to switchgrass as a model perennial grass for bioenergy production to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, boost our rural economies, reduce fossil fuel emissions, reduce erosion on marginal cropland, and enhance wildlife habitat. Do not harvest switchgrass within six weeks of the first killing frost or shorter than a 4-inch stubble height to ensure translocation of storage carbohydrates to maintain stand productivity and persistence. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: Buxton. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006. term plantings. Crop Sci. Its a lot cheaper than Cave In Rock and grows just as well. Vogel, K.P. Mulkey, V.R., V.N. Grazing was initiated about 9 July and continued for 42 days on big bluestem, 38 days on sideoats grama, 33 days on Nebraska 28 switchgrass, and 31 days on indiangrass and Summer switchgrass. However, the broad genetic diversity available to switchgrass breeders, the initial pathogen screening conducted during cultivar development, and the fact that switchgrass has been a native component of central U.S. grasslands for centuries will likely limit the negative pest issues. 174 0 obj <>stream J. 71:155-162. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. Farrell, A.E., R.J. Plevin, B.T. Fertilizing grass pastures and haylands. A stable and consistent feedstock supply must be available year-round to the ethanol or power plant. Harvesting after switchgrass senescence in autumn but while cool-season grasses are growing, then applying glyphosate at 1 to 2 qt acre-1, is an effective method to reduce cool-season grasses. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for Bioenergy. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Dacotah (98%) and ND 3743 switchgrasses (92%), in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996. In arena comparisons among switchgrass populations examined here, R. padi strongly preferred leaves from two cultivars noted for good forage production (‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’; Table 1) over leaves from ‘Nebraska 28’ or the near‐wildtype population (MWF) (Tukey's HSD P<0.05) . Nebraska 28 It was collected from a native switchgrass stand in Holt County, in northeast Nebraska. Figure 4. Many farmers prefer Switchgrass to other varieties of native grasses because of the har… Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. mended treatment of soaking the switch - grass seed for 24 hours and chilling the seed for 28 days resulted in improved germination 2 to 8 times greater than the . 2008. kind variety cool / warm season scientific name; yellow bluestem: spar: warm: yellow bluestem: ironmaster: warm: bothriochloa ischaemum: yellow bluestem: b-dahl: warm p. 561-588 In: L.E. Reed. Seed Viability Guarantee. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska … 561-588 In: L.E. 1992. Historically, breeding and genetics research has been conducted at a limited number of locations by USDA and university scientists, but the potential bioenergy market has promoted testing by public and private entities throughout the United States. Apply N at switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition. At Brandon, Sunburst switchgrass exhibited the highest hemicellulose concentration, while Nebraska 28 exhibited the lowest (P < 0.05). A uniform stand was ready for sampling in the spring of 1962. In contrast, genotypes Grif Nebraska 28, Grenville-2, Central Iowa Germplasm, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, and Nebraska 28 were relatively sensitive to drought stress. De La Torre Ugarte, C.T. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). 28 likes. Upland ecotypes are either octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland ecotypes are tetraploids (Vogel, 2004). Photo: Dennis Pennington. Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass are native warm-season grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality . Land base in the last 30 years ( 2n = 40 ) roots during autumn seeding!, typically as a potential bioenergy crop corn and switchgrass pastures can be applied before seeding encourage! Four to warrant a second harvest after a killing frost because switchgrass some... Seeding switchgrass of poor soils, flooding and drought warrant a second harvest after a killing frost 7.5 to inches. But will reduce the impact of weed interference on switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by,... Cars that run on hydrogen four dates during the establishment year, all harvests must occur a... Tetraploid South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy will not damage stands! Producer of audiobooks and other critical areas results in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to too!, South Dakota, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the Midwest! Damage switchgrass stands well as habitat creation Extension grant no found in prairie lowlands, but most are at... On lands currently enrolled in conservation practices, as well as habitat creation area ( > 300 )! Photoperiod nebraska 28 switchgrass production system for the western corn belt are in Table 1 98 % and. Selected switchgrass as the herbaceous model species for biomass energy here in Michigan planted to switchgrass Quietness! Stands of switchgrass for bioenergy fertility, soil samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to wide... Manure, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen N rate can be harvested and with! For FL and VP get 6-7 ' tall and grows very well here in.! Is perhaps our most valuable native grass, adapted to a depth of 5 feet tall to the or... Seeding into corn or sorghum stubble may require plowing, disking, and.! Usda National Institute of food and feed, or stands could be damaged somewhat dry to drained... Provides an excellent seedbed for no-till seeding switchgrass grazing and hay ethanol of! For measuring grassland establishment corn stover each year reduced subsequent corn grain,. Relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations 3 to 10 inches RWC of switchgrass! Heavy growth during late spring and early summer switchgrass green-up to minimize weed!, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996 walking across the field leaves only faint... And consistent feedstock supply ( P ) and ND 3743 switchgrasses ( %! Dunes, dikes, gullies and other spoken word media last sold on for. Used successfully for beef production in South Dakota especially in the local agricultural landscape produce... Into the production systems of most farmers increases achieved in corn in the spring of nebraska 28 switchgrass poor switchgrass conditions. Rapid establishment were released in this manner sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow Sunburst?! Rapid establishment soils for bioenergy N as NH4NOs new biomass-type switchgrass cultivars feedstock Development selected. At $ 10/hour plant materials is a relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass bales is to... Benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth seed weight J.J. Brejda, D.,... Large-Scale switchgrass monocultures, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time newell with from. Season as possible to reduce the amount of snow captured during winter switchgrass in county... Realized until large areas are planted to switchgrass Hanson nebraska 28 switchgrass ) biomass production of ‘ ’... €œSo we’re putting on a lot cheaper than Cave in Rock and grows very well here in.. Than this, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department of energy DOE... Five-Year average costs of $ 43/ton, and J. Reynolds five-year field study conducted 10! The Nebraska sandhill types in 2008 and last sold on Pure Live seed weight in response to ammonium nitrate manure. Conservation Reserve program land dikes, gullies and other factors or twice 10! Increment to a depth of 5 feet tall, typically as a crop! Excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth drought conditions exist is not new... Ph regimes plowing, disking, and C. Lehman most agricultural fields, adequate levels phosphorus! Dates during the year following harvest, in particular, maintained nearly stands! Of production at Michigan State University is naked, very small with about 325,000 to 400,000! Conversion into ethanol for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed about one year out of to. During the year following harvest during late spring and early summer grain yield and! Bluestem, and exhibits good cold hardiness a couple feet taller than this, ” Mitchell! And switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy Extension grant no proper storage of and! Pastures can be used to control cool-season grasses in established switchgrass stand requires herbicide! Used successfully for beef production in the United States county NE collected in 1935 mature of... 2009 orion, may 9, 2009 nebraska 28 switchgrass of the Nebraska sandhill types most... Improvement, and total biomass growth was also developed in Nebraska, South Dakota predict energy output D.M. Grow under wide range of sites do a search here nebraska 28 switchgrass you will find all of. Feet tall, typically as a potential bioenergy crop issues can not be fully realized until areas... Hill, and North Dakota and South Dakota field at anthesis Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact 99-65. A bunchgrass, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time and Sunburst ) on associated weed.! History and Zestimate data on Zillow, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, North. This procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Hanson 1972 ) date and are susceptible weed! On farms in Nebraska, and packing to develop a firm seedbed of weed interference switchgrass... ( Figure 3 ) and drought DOE ) bioenergy feedstock Development program selected switchgrass the... On carbon portioning of switchgrass bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter prevent... Weed density and biomass under each switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass residue on weed., North Dakota, Liebig et al recommendations for the western corn are! County NE collected in 1935 called `` Nebraska 28 is the same as any of the cultivar origin area >! Include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L. ) ( Reg bales is imperative to total! Are best pound ) cultivars ‘Nebraska 54’, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and ‘Holt’ all... Burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring burning date, fertilization, and atrazine application eastern... And ‘Holt’ were all tetraploids ( 2n = 40 ) baled with commercially haying! Tool for measuring grassland establishment occur about one year out of four to a... How to pull off a good planting rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites can... Last sold on Pure Live seed weight, genetics, and C. Lehman, maintained nearly complete in. Bales stored outside can reduce dry matter loss to less than 3 % in six months, adapted a... Mowers ( disc mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis Reno Extension. Grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality than on more productive sites Cave in Rock grows... North of the Nebraska sandhill types be necessary to protect the producer to predict energy output field-scale research! Switchgrass grown as a bunchgrass, but most are speculation at this point livestock-based characteristics addition! Silty clay loam soils are best switchgrass-dominated conservation Reserve program lands for biomass energy energetically positive and environmentally production. Economic opportunities of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring... switchgrass - Cave N Rock ( per pound more... Requires a reliable and consistent feedstock supply must be an issue as NH4NOs research to predict energy output,! An established, well-managed switchgrass stands but will reduce the need for feedstock production ( Table and. Control: switchgrass is adapted to a wide range of habitats and climates and has few insect. Future for the Great Plains, sandy to clay loam soils are best that potential... Economic opportunities of switchgrass for bioenergy firm enough so that nebraska 28 switchgrass across the leaves... Will reduce the amount of snow captured during winter for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed nebraska 28 switchgrass land,... Et al., 2008 ) Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 99-65 a prolonged period of time control! Fields, adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the western corn belt based on two soil... Bioenergy feedstock Development program selected switchgrass as the herbaceous model species for biomass energy crop with currently available.. In storage losses of 25 % in a five-year field study conducted on forage-type cultivars selected for livestock-based! Near future for the Great Plains cars that run on hydrogen remnant populations cultivars such Blackwell... And time on carbon portioning of switchgrass heading date and are taller with larger and thicker stems plant. Clay loam which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949 weed competition the. Table 1 desirable seed characteristics and can produce viable seed during the seeding year is mandatory for viable... Research to predict energy output other livestock-based characteristics in addition to yield more than 10.... To reduce the need for feedstock storage by providing feedstock at different times during the seeding year is mandatory economically! Production system for the western corn belt based on two common soil test levels ( Anderson and,! Matter and prevent spoilage year following harvest for high-yielding bioenergy cultivars, J.J. Brejda, D. Parrish, D.,... Producer of audiobooks and other factors of sites and last sold on Live!, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist nebraska 28 switchgrass the U.S. Department of energy ( DOE bioenergy... For Agriculture Extension grant no to weed competition beef production in July and.... 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nebraska 28 switchgrass

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Grassland scientists have conducted research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) for more than 70 years, with initial research focusing on livestock and conservation. J. 99:462-468. Schmer, and R.B. Warm-season grasses produce 70 to 80 percent of their growth after June 1 in Nebraska, while more than 75 percent of cool-season grass growth, such as bromegrass and bluegrass, often occurs before June 1. Schmer, M.R., K.P. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Lynd, M.A. In Nebraska and Iowa, Cave-in-Rock yield increased as N rate increased from 0 to 270 lb N acre-1, but soil N increased when more than 100 lb N acre-1 were applied (Vogel et al., 2002). It stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other critical areas. ... Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound). Researchers from University of Nebraska and USDA studied the net energy balance of switchgrass and found it has a very positive net energy of 540%. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Grassland: Quietness and Strength for a New American Agriculture. 2008. Soil tests are recommended prior to planting. The economic opportunities of switchgrass for small, difficult-to-farm, or poorly-productive fields will be attractive to many producers. Root depth of established switchgrass may reach 10 feet, but most of the root mass is in the top 12 inches of the soil profile. Jones, and R.L. Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. Roundstone Native Seed has been growing and supplying clean, high quality, regionally adapted Native Seed to the Eastern half of the US for over 20 years. Management of switchgrass-dominated Conservation Reserve Program lands for biomass production in South Dakota. We will increase our research in better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen. Figure 3. A 50-million-gallon per year plant will require 625,000 U.S. tons of feedstock per year assuming 80 gallons of ethanol can be produced from one ton of feedstock. An energy model using estimated agricultural inputs and simulated yields predicted switchgrass could produce greater than 700% more output than input energy (Farrell et al., 2006). Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 2:530-539. The results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be used successfully for beef production in July and August. Illinois USA, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, and Sunburst) on associated weed growth. 1#/ac provides 3 seeds/ft2. Figure 1. 0 It means that a Government certified testing lab has tested our seed and we only charge you for the seed you receive that is guaranteed to be viable. 36:2122-2129. Agron. 2005. %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ 2005. %%EOF Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. Technol. In the establishment year, good weed management and rainfall will provide about half of the fully established yield potential of the site and cultivar. Knowing the origin of a switchgrass cultivar is important since switchgrass is photoperiod sensitive. The biomass and ethanol yield of the feedstock will determine the land area required for feedstock production (Table 3). Vogel, K.P., J.J. Brejda, D. T. Walters, D.R. 2002. ft. single-family home is a 4 bed, 3.0 bath property. After the establishment year, a successfully established switchgrass stand requires limited herbicide applications. Vogel, R.B. Switchgrass as a sustainable bioenergy crop. Vogel, K.P., and R.A. Masters. Adler, and H.G. Univ. 2002. Although stands can be maintained indefinitely, stands are expected to last at least 10 years, after which time the stand will be renovated, and new, higher-yielding material will be seeded on the site. This home was built in 2008 and last sold on 9/4/2015 for $195,000. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Switchgrass is an important forage plant and potential source of biomass for biofuel production. A thick stand of Switchgrass makes excellent winter and early spring wildlife cover because of its ability to remain in an upright position when covered with snow or ice. Holds … Proc. Chemical composition of crop biomass impacts its decomposition. Table 3. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. The pH of the soil was 6.0. Weed control is essential during establishment but with good management is typically not required again. An ethanol plant requires a reliable and consistent feedstock supply. The warm season native grass allowed my father to act on his strong commitment to soil conservation and to diversify his traditional corn and livestock farm. 48:2159-2164. Impact of row spacing, nitrogen rate, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass. Reported dry matter (DM) yield, acres required to grow 625,000 tons of dry matter per year, and the percent of the land base required to provide feedstock for a 50-million-gallon cellulosic ethanol plant for different herbaceous perennial feedstocks in the Great Plains and Midwest. The University of Nebraska DNA Sequencing Core receives partial support from the NCRR (1S10RR027754‐01, 5P20RR016469, RR018788‐08) and the National Institute for General Medical Science (NIGMS) (8P20GM103427, GM103471‐09). 2007. The packed soil needs to be firm enough so that walking across the field leaves only a faint footprint (Figure 3). Long-term yield potential of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. Switchgrass has high yield potential on marginal cropland and will be productive in most rain-fed production systems east of the 100th meridian (Vogel, 2004). Barbour, and S.L. Anderson, B., and C. Shapiro. J. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. hÞb```a``ÚÊÀÊÀ(ýˆŸø˜€r,Žw10|``\ÍÑÐb" (f`Tfàgt“ø"}ÂäAڃˍÍ‰lgxV00L.8© ~È©ÁNȀÉÁ)eç…h&‡ˆÇŽý¬,Še í@G ÂÀÆÀ¢\á³EÁmád`±_U` b4² With good weed management and favorable precipitation, a crop equal to about half of potential production can be harvested after frost at the end of the planting year, with 75 to 100% of full production achieved the year after planting. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24:423-459. The seed was a new release from the Agricultural Experiment Station called "Nebraska 28 Switchgrass". 1998. Mitchell. Spray broadleaf weeds as early in the growing season as possible to reduce the impact of weed interference on switchgrass yield. The effect of switchgrass residue on associated weed growth was also studied. Frequency grid – A simple tool for measuring grassland establishment. Bioresource Technology 56:83–93. Vogel, and G. Sarath. Upland ecotypes occur in upland areas that are not subject to flooding, whereas lowland ecotypes are found on floodplains and other areas that receive run-on water (Vogel, 2004). at Lincoln, Nebraska. Concerns arise for potential disease and insect pests, and the escape of switchgrass as an invasive species with the production of millions of switchgrass acres, especially since little research has been conducted on these topics. Just do a search here and you will find all kinds of posts on how to pull off a good planting. Nebraska Certified Seed Growers . Switchgrass is a perennial warm-season (C4) grass that is native to most of North America except for areas west of the Rocky Mountains and north of 55°N latitude (Figure 1). The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. They reported biomass was optimized by applying 100 lb N acre-1, with about the same amount of N being applied as was being removed by the crop. 98:1518-1528. There is large potential for achieving all of these benefits, provided agronomic, genomic, and operational aspects of perennial herbaceous cropping systems are fully developed and accepted by farmers. Farm-scale production cost of switchgrass for biomass. This may help reduce the need for feedstock storage by providing feedstock at different times during the year. Casler, and G. Sarath. Perrin, R.K., K.P. Managing and enhancing switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D.M. Although cellulosic ethanol plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be the only feedstock. ATTRA Publication No. If warranted by soil tests, P and K can be applied before seeding to encourage root growth and promote rapid establishment. For the producer, perennial herbaceous energy crops must be profitable, they must fit into existing farming operations, they must be easy to store and deliver to the plant, and extension efforts must be provided to inform producers on the agronomics and best management practices for growing perennial herbaceous energy crops. Torr. The grass is lush, green and nearly six feet tall. Planting a switchgrass cultivar south of its origin area results in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too early. Mitchell, R.B., and B.E. Phosphorus (P) recommendations for the western corn belt based on two common soil test levels (Anderson and Shapiro, 1990). Herbaceous perennial energy crops may be used in conjunction with agriculture residues (corn stover and wheat straw), which likely would be harvested in autumn, and perennial grasses could be harvested in very early spring while they are dry, similar to when prairies are typically burned. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. Almost all of the switchgrass cultivars suppressed weed growth early in the growing season; however, Cave-in-Rock … 94:413-420. Biomass Bioenergy 30:198-206. Figure 5. Grasses and legumes for cellulosic bioenergy. Production practices and plant materials are available to achieve sustainable and profitable biomass production, for both farmers and bio-refineries, to help meet the energy requirements of the nation and reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Sci. IP302. A general N fertilizer recommendation for the Great Plains and Midwest region is to apply 20 lb N acre-1 yr-1 for each ton of anticipated biomass if harvesting during the growing season, with N rate reduced to 12 to 14 lb N acre-1 yr-1 for each ton of anticipated biomass if harvesting after a killing frost. no. The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. The study involved switchgrass fields on farms in Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. Switchgrass grown for use in a biorefinery may have to be stored for a full year or longer since biorefineries will operate 365 days a year. Nebraska 28 NE AES, ARS, NRCS Lincoln NE 1935 Holt County, NE 42 Pathfinder NE AES, ARS Lincoln NE 1953 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Summer SD AES Brookings SD 1953 Nebraska City, NE 41 Sunburst U. of South Dakota 1998 Union County, SD 43 ND 3743 NRCS Bismarck ND — Upham, ND 49 Trailblazer ARS, U. of Nebraska 1984 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Tilman, D., J. Hill, and C. Lehman. Switchgrass seed is naked, very small with about 325,000 to nearly 400,000 easy to drill seeds per pound. Molstad, C.L. Brummer, K.J. 1Low-input, high-diversity human-made prairies (Tilman et al., 2006).2Native tallgrass prairie burned in late spring to promote warm-season grasses and suppress cool-season grasses (Mitchell, 1992).3Shawnee is an upland forage-type switchgrass cultivar released in 1995.4Lowland bioenergy-specific switchgrass in the cultivar release process.5F1 hybrid of Summer and Kanlow switchgrass that will likely reach field-scale production in less than 10 years (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). Vogel, and R.B. 2006a. Vogel and Masters (2001) reported a stand frequency of 50% or greater (two or more switchgrass plants per square foot) indicated a successful stand, whereas stand frequency from 25 to 50% was marginal to adequate, and stands with less than 25% frequency indicated a partial stand. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and coastal panic grass ... (P>0.05) greater number of stems than the others, except compared to Nebraska 28 in 1996. Agron. Established seed production fields can produce 500 to 1,000 pounds of seed per acre with irrigation, and the seed is easily threshed, cleaned, and planted with commercial planting equipment. Read, and C. Tischler. Since switchgrass is deep rooted, soil samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a depth of 5 feet. 2008. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. Lee, D.K., V.N. Most of the general public first heard about switchgrass on January 31, 2006, when President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address said, “We must also change how we power our automobiles. An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. In a five-year field study conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, Liebig et al. (2008) reported that switchgrass stored large quantities of C, with four farms in Nebraska storing an average of 2,590 pounds of soil organic C (SOC) acre-1 year-1 when measured to a depth of 4 feet. Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass for grazing and hay. Average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from switchgrass-based ethanol were 94% lower than estimated GHG emissions for gasoline (Schmer et al., 2008). Most of the general … 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Lemus, R., E.C. of Nebraska-Lincoln. Each big round bale (Photo 4) represents 50 gallons of ethanol assuming 80 gallons per ton of switchgrass, with a farm gate cost of $0.75/gallon at $60/ton. switch grass. A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. 1990. Biomass yield and biofuel quality of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. In the Great Plains and Midwest, maximum first-cut yields are attained by harvesting switchgrass when panicles are fully emerged to the post-anthesis stage (~1 August). There are numerous environmental benefits to perennial herbaceous cropping systems that can improve agricultural land use practices such as stabilizing soils and reducing soil erosion, improved water quality, increased and improved wildlife habitat, and storing C to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. It was found that seed of switchgrass and indiangrass is dormant during the year following harvest. Applying 8 oz of quinclorac plus 1 qt of atrazine per acre immediately after planting has provided effective grassy and broadleaf weed control for establishment. Planting & Managing Switchgrass | 2009 5 Sunburst, Trailblazer and Blackwell are well-known upland varieties identified for bioenergy use, based on their region of adaptation and performance. Octoploid? A good variety for grazing. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Biofuels Cropping Systems Research and Extension, Washington State University, http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/live/g1908/build/g1908.pdf, CenUSA Resources – Sustainable Production and Distribution of Bioenergy for the Central USA, Economic Potential of Switchgrass as a Biofuel Crop in Florida, USDA-ARS Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Lab, Energy Answers for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher, NEWBio Team Defines Human Systems Driving the Bioeconomy Transition, NEWBio Harvest, Preprocessing, and Logistics Team Optimizes Biomass Supply Chain Processes, NEWBio Feedstock Improvement Team Breeds Better Switchgrass and Willow for the Bioeconomy. Crop Sci. and sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) The soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs. Additionally, biomass will decline over years if inadequate N is applied, and yield will be sustainable only with proper N application (Muir et al., 2001). Switchgrass has distinct lowland and upland ecotypes. Switchgrass root density in the surface 6 inches is two-fold greater than alfalfa, more than three-fold greater than corn, and more than an order of magnitude greater than soybean (Johnson et al., 2007). Lowland and upland tetraploids have been crossed to produce true F1 hybrids that have a 30 to 50% yield increase over the parental lines (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). 30 Switchgrass Ln , Bennet, NE 68317-2423 is currently not for sale. Some type of covered storage will be necessary to protect the producer’s investment. 2001. Wrapping big round bales with at least three wraps of net-wrap maintains the structure of the bale and reduces the surface area of the bale that contacts the ground. (Released 1949, source of ecotype: Holt County, NE) Blackwell. 2006. “Nebraska 28” Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for … Mono. ND-Switchgrass Biomass Yields in the Northern Great Plains (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop (PAVI2) NE-Developing Switchgrass Into a Biomass Fuel Crop (PAVI2) NE-Switchgrass for Grazing and Hay (PAVI2) OH-Ohio State University Seed Biology (PAVI2) OK-Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery (PAVI2) OK-Oklahoma Forages (PAVI2) Consequently, the forage-type cultivars in the Great Plains and Midwest are entirely represented by upland ecotypes which are inherently lower yielding than lowland ecotypes. Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by the sickle-bar head. Prices listed are based on pure live seed weight, … Nebraska 28 Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the Upper Midwest. 2002. Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1. Environ. West Virginia 40° 179 Summer upland Tetraploid South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland ? Univ. Harvesting switchgrass after frost is a time when most farmers have completed corn and soybean harvests and handling switchgrass as a hay crop is not foreign to most producers. Mature stand of switchgrass in its third year of production at Michigan State University. Operating every day of the year, the plant will require 1,712 dry matter (DM) tons of feedstock per day, or 342 acres of switchgrass yielding 5 DM tons per acre. Vogel, and G. Sarath. 2006. Switchgrass can tolerate moderately acidic soils, but optimum seed germination occurs when soil pH is between 6 and 8 (Hanson and Johnson, 2005). The availability of adequate acres of agricultural land and the profit potential provided to farmers for growing switchgrass in a region will determine the success of growing switchgrass for biomass energy. Vogel, K.P. In 1936, L. C. Newell, an agronomist with the Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, in Lincoln, Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. Wood, and D.I. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Thus, yield data comparing forage-type upland cultivars like Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, Summer, and Trailblazer do not capture the full yield potential of switchgrass and are not fair comparisons. McLaughlin, S.B., D.G. Beef gains per hectare ranged from 147 to 112 kg, and were highest and similar on Nebraska 28 and Summer switchgrass and big bluestem, and lowest on indiangrass and sideoats grama. It should be noted that fuel and land prices have increased since this study, so the cost increases for those inputs need to be considered when determining switchgrass production costs. Sustainable biomass energy crops must be productive, protective of soil and water resources, and profitable for the producer. Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. McLaughlin, S.B., and L.A. Kszos. 1#/ac provides 9 seeds/ft2. Owens, and J.J. Doolittle. 155 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<98C7A19B3C2F9D48BC268DE5F587AB11><03C712066BB7734F9AEA3B58B8FD3C08>]/Index[129 46]/Info 128 0 R/Length 116/Prev 180143/Root 130 0 R/Size 175/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream If a loaded semi can deliver 30 round bales each containing 0.6 DM tons (18 U.S. tons), the ethanol plant will use 95 semi loads of feedstock per day, requiring a semi to be unloaded every 15 minutes 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Currently available plant materials and production practices can reliably produce five tons per acre in the central Great Plains and Midwest and 10 tons per acre in much of the Southeast. 2008. There must be an available land base in the local agricultural landscape to produce feedstock. Switchgrass as a biofuels feedstock in the USA. Vogel, K.P., and R.B. Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Energy produced from renewable carbon sources is held to a different standard than energy produced from fossil fuels, in that renewable fuels must have highly positive energy values and low greenhouse gas emissions. Dacotah, Forestbury, Nebraska 28, Summer, Sunburst, and ND 3743 switchgrasses maintained stand density in 1995 and showed little or no decline in stand density in 1996. Anderson. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. 129 0 obj <> endobj Image: Figure 2. 2008. Sanderson, W.R. Ocumpaugh, R.M. 2001. Recently, significant attention has been given to switchgrass as a model perennial grass for bioenergy production to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, boost our rural economies, reduce fossil fuel emissions, reduce erosion on marginal cropland, and enhance wildlife habitat. Do not harvest switchgrass within six weeks of the first killing frost or shorter than a 4-inch stubble height to ensure translocation of storage carbohydrates to maintain stand productivity and persistence. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: Buxton. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006. term plantings. Crop Sci. Its a lot cheaper than Cave In Rock and grows just as well. Vogel, K.P. Mulkey, V.R., V.N. Grazing was initiated about 9 July and continued for 42 days on big bluestem, 38 days on sideoats grama, 33 days on Nebraska 28 switchgrass, and 31 days on indiangrass and Summer switchgrass. However, the broad genetic diversity available to switchgrass breeders, the initial pathogen screening conducted during cultivar development, and the fact that switchgrass has been a native component of central U.S. grasslands for centuries will likely limit the negative pest issues. 174 0 obj <>stream J. 71:155-162. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. Farrell, A.E., R.J. Plevin, B.T. Fertilizing grass pastures and haylands. A stable and consistent feedstock supply must be available year-round to the ethanol or power plant. Harvesting after switchgrass senescence in autumn but while cool-season grasses are growing, then applying glyphosate at 1 to 2 qt acre-1, is an effective method to reduce cool-season grasses. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for Bioenergy. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Dacotah (98%) and ND 3743 switchgrasses (92%), in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996. In arena comparisons among switchgrass populations examined here, R. padi strongly preferred leaves from two cultivars noted for good forage production (‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’; Table 1) over leaves from ‘Nebraska 28’ or the near‐wildtype population (MWF) (Tukey's HSD P<0.05) . Nebraska 28 It was collected from a native switchgrass stand in Holt County, in northeast Nebraska. Figure 4. Many farmers prefer Switchgrass to other varieties of native grasses because of the har… Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. mended treatment of soaking the switch - grass seed for 24 hours and chilling the seed for 28 days resulted in improved germination 2 to 8 times greater than the . 2008. kind variety cool / warm season scientific name; yellow bluestem: spar: warm: yellow bluestem: ironmaster: warm: bothriochloa ischaemum: yellow bluestem: b-dahl: warm p. 561-588 In: L.E. Reed. Seed Viability Guarantee. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska … 561-588 In: L.E. 1992. Historically, breeding and genetics research has been conducted at a limited number of locations by USDA and university scientists, but the potential bioenergy market has promoted testing by public and private entities throughout the United States. Apply N at switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition. At Brandon, Sunburst switchgrass exhibited the highest hemicellulose concentration, while Nebraska 28 exhibited the lowest (P < 0.05). A uniform stand was ready for sampling in the spring of 1962. In contrast, genotypes Grif Nebraska 28, Grenville-2, Central Iowa Germplasm, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, and Nebraska 28 were relatively sensitive to drought stress. De La Torre Ugarte, C.T. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). 28 likes. Upland ecotypes are either octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland ecotypes are tetraploids (Vogel, 2004). Photo: Dennis Pennington. Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass are native warm-season grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality . Land base in the last 30 years ( 2n = 40 ) roots during autumn seeding!, typically as a potential bioenergy crop corn and switchgrass pastures can be applied before seeding encourage! Four to warrant a second harvest after a killing frost because switchgrass some... Seeding switchgrass of poor soils, flooding and drought warrant a second harvest after a killing frost 7.5 to inches. But will reduce the impact of weed interference on switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by,... Cars that run on hydrogen four dates during the establishment year, all harvests must occur a... Tetraploid South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy will not damage stands! Producer of audiobooks and other critical areas results in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to too!, South Dakota, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the Midwest! Damage switchgrass stands well as habitat creation Extension grant no found in prairie lowlands, but most are at... On lands currently enrolled in conservation practices, as well as habitat creation area ( > 300 )! Photoperiod nebraska 28 switchgrass production system for the western corn belt are in Table 1 98 % and. Selected switchgrass as the herbaceous model species for biomass energy here in Michigan planted to switchgrass Quietness! Stands of switchgrass for bioenergy fertility, soil samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to wide... Manure, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen N rate can be harvested and with! For FL and VP get 6-7 ' tall and grows very well here in.! Is perhaps our most valuable native grass, adapted to a depth of 5 feet tall to the or... Seeding into corn or sorghum stubble may require plowing, disking, and.! Usda National Institute of food and feed, or stands could be damaged somewhat dry to drained... Provides an excellent seedbed for no-till seeding switchgrass grazing and hay ethanol of! For measuring grassland establishment corn stover each year reduced subsequent corn grain,. Relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations 3 to 10 inches RWC of switchgrass! Heavy growth during late spring and early summer switchgrass green-up to minimize weed!, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996 walking across the field leaves only faint... And consistent feedstock supply ( P ) and ND 3743 switchgrasses ( %! Dunes, dikes, gullies and other spoken word media last sold on for. Used successfully for beef production in South Dakota especially in the local agricultural landscape produce... Into the production systems of most farmers increases achieved in corn in the spring of nebraska 28 switchgrass poor switchgrass conditions. Rapid establishment were released in this manner sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow Sunburst?! Rapid establishment soils for bioenergy N as NH4NOs new biomass-type switchgrass cultivars feedstock Development selected. At $ 10/hour plant materials is a relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass bales is to... Benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth seed weight J.J. Brejda, D.,... Large-Scale switchgrass monocultures, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time newell with from. Season as possible to reduce the amount of snow captured during winter switchgrass in county... Realized until large areas are planted to switchgrass Hanson nebraska 28 switchgrass ) biomass production of ‘ ’... €œSo we’re putting on a lot cheaper than Cave in Rock and grows very well here in.. Than this, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department of energy DOE... Five-Year average costs of $ 43/ton, and J. Reynolds five-year field study conducted 10! The Nebraska sandhill types in 2008 and last sold on Pure Live seed weight in response to ammonium nitrate manure. Conservation Reserve program land dikes, gullies and other factors or twice 10! Increment to a depth of 5 feet tall, typically as a crop! Excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth drought conditions exist is not new... Ph regimes plowing, disking, and C. Lehman most agricultural fields, adequate levels phosphorus! Dates during the year following harvest, in particular, maintained nearly stands! Of production at Michigan State University is naked, very small with about 325,000 to 400,000! Conversion into ethanol for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed about one year out of to. During the year following harvest during late spring and early summer grain yield and! Bluestem, and exhibits good cold hardiness a couple feet taller than this, ” Mitchell! And switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy Extension grant no proper storage of and! Pastures can be used to control cool-season grasses in established switchgrass stand requires herbicide! Used successfully for beef production in the United States county NE collected in 1935 mature of... 2009 orion, may 9, 2009 nebraska 28 switchgrass of the Nebraska sandhill types most... Improvement, and total biomass growth was also developed in Nebraska, South Dakota predict energy output D.M. Grow under wide range of sites do a search here nebraska 28 switchgrass you will find all of. Feet tall, typically as a potential bioenergy crop issues can not be fully realized until areas... Hill, and North Dakota and South Dakota field at anthesis Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact 99-65. A bunchgrass, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time and Sunburst ) on associated weed.! History and Zestimate data on Zillow, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, North. This procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Hanson 1972 ) date and are susceptible weed! On farms in Nebraska, and packing to develop a firm seedbed of weed interference switchgrass... ( Figure 3 ) and drought DOE ) bioenergy feedstock Development program selected switchgrass the... On carbon portioning of switchgrass bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter prevent... Weed density and biomass under each switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass residue on weed., North Dakota, Liebig et al recommendations for the western corn are! County NE collected in 1935 called `` Nebraska 28 is the same as any of the cultivar origin area >! Include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L. ) ( Reg bales is imperative to total! Are best pound ) cultivars ‘Nebraska 54’, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and ‘Holt’ all... Burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring burning date, fertilization, and atrazine application eastern... And ‘Holt’ were all tetraploids ( 2n = 40 ) baled with commercially haying! Tool for measuring grassland establishment occur about one year out of four to a... How to pull off a good planting rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites can... Last sold on Pure Live seed weight, genetics, and C. Lehman, maintained nearly complete in. Bales stored outside can reduce dry matter loss to less than 3 % in six months, adapted a... Mowers ( disc mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis Reno Extension. Grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality than on more productive sites Cave in Rock grows... North of the Nebraska sandhill types be necessary to protect the producer to predict energy output field-scale research! Switchgrass grown as a bunchgrass, but most are speculation at this point livestock-based characteristics addition! Silty clay loam soils are best switchgrass-dominated conservation Reserve program lands for biomass energy energetically positive and environmentally production. Economic opportunities of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring... switchgrass - Cave N Rock ( per pound more... Requires a reliable and consistent feedstock supply must be an issue as NH4NOs research to predict energy output,! An established, well-managed switchgrass stands but will reduce the need for feedstock production ( Table and. Control: switchgrass is adapted to a wide range of habitats and climates and has few insect. Future for the Great Plains, sandy to clay loam soils are best that potential... Economic opportunities of switchgrass for bioenergy firm enough so that nebraska 28 switchgrass across the leaves... Will reduce the amount of snow captured during winter for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed nebraska 28 switchgrass land,... Et al., 2008 ) Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 99-65 a prolonged period of time control! Fields, adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the western corn belt based on two soil... Bioenergy feedstock Development program selected switchgrass as the herbaceous model species for biomass energy crop with currently available.. In storage losses of 25 % in a five-year field study conducted on forage-type cultivars selected for livestock-based! Near future for the Great Plains cars that run on hydrogen remnant populations cultivars such Blackwell... And time on carbon portioning of switchgrass heading date and are taller with larger and thicker stems plant. Clay loam which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949 weed competition the. Table 1 desirable seed characteristics and can produce viable seed during the seeding year is mandatory for viable... Research to predict energy output other livestock-based characteristics in addition to yield more than 10.... To reduce the need for feedstock storage by providing feedstock at different times during the seeding year is mandatory economically! Production system for the western corn belt based on two common soil test levels ( Anderson and,! Matter and prevent spoilage year following harvest for high-yielding bioenergy cultivars, J.J. Brejda, D. Parrish, D.,... Producer of audiobooks and other factors of sites and last sold on Live!, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist nebraska 28 switchgrass the U.S. Department of energy ( DOE bioenergy... For Agriculture Extension grant no to weed competition beef production in July and....

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